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THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION. 463
ror. The management of religious affairs in Russia pursues
much the same direction.
When the protestant nations shook off the yoke of the Ro-
man church, the reforms were brought first or last under
the control of the prince and state. The symbols of belief
were determined by synods, perhaps, but accepted by the
governing power. The religious property came under the con-
trol of the state, and that which had belonged to monastic
establishments, being incompatible in its existing uses with
the reforms, was escheated or otherwise disposed of. New
sects that separated from the reformation were not endured.
The jus reformandi was held to reside in the state, or in its
head as representing it. For the most part, the methods of
supporting parish ministers then in use were continued, and
the people had but little voice in the selection of their minis-
ters. The dependence of church upon state was substantially
the same in protestant Germany, Switzerland, England, Hol-
land, and the Scandinavian nations.
In England, especially, the established church is the crea-
ture of the state, and the same power that created can destroy
it, as is shown by the recent disestablishment of the English
church in Ireland. This power, exercised by the king, or by
the king in parliament, extends to all doctrine, discipline,
worship, the tenure of ecclesiastical offices, the toleration of
other confessions or forms of church order outside of the
establishment, to church property, to the performance of
ordinary religious acts. Under the regime of the old church,
convocations met, passed canons, and granted taxes. After-
wards they met for form's sake and adjourned. The bishops
were elected by the deans and chapters, subject to more or
less control of'the pope. Now no choice is made but on
nomination of the king. There was no right of worship
granted to heretics ; Lollards were persecuted to the death.
The same right of suppressing heresies passed over to the
state and to those who acted under it. Puritans were perse-
cuted, together with Catholics, then Socinians, and Quakers.
The act of supremacy under Elizabeth shut out all Catholics